Vectors are used to store one-dimensional data of the same type in R. In this tutorial, we will look at how to get the cumulative sum of a vector in R with the help of some examples.
What is the cumulative sum?
The cumulative sum of a series of values is the sum of values up to that value in our series. For example, for a vector of three values (a1, a2, and a3), the cumulative sum would be a1, a1+a2, and a1+a2+a3. The following image illustrates this with an example.
In the above image, we have four values 10, 20, 30, and 40. The cumulative sum for these values is 10, 10+20, 10+20+30, and 10+20+30+40 respectively. Note that the order in which these values appear is important when computing the cumulative sum.
How to calculate the cumulative sum of a vector in R?
You can use the
cumsum() function in R to compute the cumulative sum of the values in a vector. Pass the vector as an argument to the function. The following is the syntax –
# cumulative sum of vector x cumsum(x)
It returns a vector containing the cumulative sum of the values in the passed vector.
Let’s now look at some examples of using the above syntax.
Cumulative sum of a vector of numbers
Let’s create a vector of some numbers and use the
cumsum() function to calculate its cumulative sum. For example, let’s compute the cumulative sum for the vector
c(10, 20, 30, 40).
# create a vector vec <- c(10, 20, 30, 40) # cumulative sum of vector print(cumsum(vec))
 10 30 60 100
We print the resulting cumulative sum. You can see that each value in the cumulative sum vector is the sum of all values till that particular index from the original vector.
Cumulative sum of a vector with
What would happen if you apply the
cumsum() function to a vector containing some
Let’s find out.
For this, we will create a vector with some
NA values and then apply the
# create a vector with NA values vec <- c(10, 20, NA, 30, NA, 40) # cumulative sum of vector print(cumsum(vec))
 10 30 NA NA NA NA
You can see that we get the cumulative sum till we encounter the first
NA in our vector. From this point onwards, the resulting cumulative sum for all the values is
NA. This happens because performing any arithmetic operation with
NA results in an
NA in R.
If you want to compute the cumulative sum irrespective of the
NA values, you can first remove the
NA values from the vector and then apply the
You might also be interested in –
- R – Sum of values in a Vector
- Average of Values in an R Vector
- Get the Maximum value in an R Vector
- Get the Minimum Value in an R Vector
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