# Combine Two or More Lists Into One in R

Lists are used to store one-dimensional data in R. They are similar to vectors but they also have the flexibility to store values of different types which a vector doesn’t. When working with lists it can be handy to know how to combine lists together. In this tutorial, we will look at how to combine two or more lists into a single list in R with the help of some examples.

## How to combine lists in R?

You can use the `c()` function in R to combine two or more lists into a single list. Pass the lists you want to combine as comma-separated arguments to the `c()` function. The following is the syntax –

```# combine lists
c(ls1, ls2, ls3, ...)```

It returns a single combined list.

## Examples

Let’s now look at some examples of combining some lists in R.

### Combine two lists into a single list

First, let’s combine two lists with numeric values into a single list using the `c()` function.

```# create two lists
ls1 <- list(1, 2, 3)
ls2 <- list(4, 5)
# combine lists
ls <- c(ls1, ls2)
# display the resulting list
print(ls)```

Output:

```[[1]]
[1] 1

[[2]]
[1] 2

[[3]]
[1] 3

[[4]]
[1] 4

[[5]]
[1] 5```

Here, we create two lists of numbers in R, `ls1` and `ls2`, and then use the `c()` function to combine the two lists into a single list. You can see that the resulting list has elements from both the lists `ls1` and `ls2`.

Note that since lists are ordered, the list resulting from `c(ls1, ls2)` will be different from the list resulting from `c(ls2, ls1`).

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### Combine more than two lists into a single list

You can similarly combine more than two lists into a single list using the `c()` function. This time let’s combine three lists with character values.

```# create three lists
ls1 <- list("milk", "eggs")
ls2 <- list("butter", "cheese", "jam")
ls3 <- list("bread")
# combine lists
ls <- c(ls1, ls2, ls3)
# display the resulting list
print(ls)```

Output:

```[[1]]
[1] "milk"

[[2]]
[1] "eggs"

[[3]]
[1] "butter"

[[4]]
[1] "cheese"

[[5]]
[1] "jam"

[[6]]
[1] "bread"```

Here we combine three lists containing some grocery items into a single list. You can see that the resulting list is a concatenation of the lists `ls1`, `ls2`, and `ls3`.

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## Authors

• Piyush is a data professional passionate about using data to understand things better and make informed decisions. He has experience working as a Data Scientist in the consulting domain and holds an engineering degree from IIT Roorkee. His hobbies include watching cricket, reading, and working on side projects.

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