In this tutorial, we will look at how to handle missing values in a category type column in Pandas with the help of some examples.

The `category`

type in Pandas is quite handy when working with categorical data. It takes a relatively smaller amount of memory (if there are a large number of repeated values present) compared to the `object`

type used to store string values.

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## Can categorical data in Pandas have missing values?

Yes, categorical data (or, in this tutorial, a `category`

type column) in Pandas can have missing values in the data but missing values should not be included in the possible values for the categories. Let’s look at an example.

import numpy as np import pandas as pd # create a dataframe df = pd.DataFrame({ "Name": ["Tim", "Sarah", "Hasan", "Jyoti", "Jack"], "Shirt Size": ["Large", "Small", "Small", "Medium", np.nan] }) # change to category dtype df["Shirt Size"] = df["Shirt Size"].astype("category") # display the "Shirt Size" column print(df["Shirt Size"])

Output:

0 Large 1 Small 2 Small 3 Medium 4 NaN Name: Shirt Size, dtype: category Categories (3, object): ['Large', 'Medium', 'Small']

In the above dataframe, the “Shirt Size” column is of `category`

type. Note that it has a `NaN`

value in the data and the possible categories for the column are “Large”, “Medium”, and “Small”.

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`NaN`

values can also result in a `category`

column if you remove an existing category value from the possible categories. For example, let’s remove the “Small” category value from the “Shirt Size” column.

# remove "Small" as a category value from "Shirt Size" column df["Shirt Size"] = df["Shirt Size"].cat.remove_categories("Small") # display the "Shirt Size" column print(df["Shirt Size"])

Output:

0 Large 1 NaN 2 NaN 3 Medium 4 NaN Name: Shirt Size, dtype: category Categories (2, object): ['Large', 'Medium']

You can see that all the occurrences of “Small” in the original data have now been replaced by `NaN`

.

You can apply common Pandas functions for working with missing values – `isna()`

, `fillna()`

, and `dropna()`

to a category type column as well. Let’s look at them with the help of some examples.

## Check if values in a category column are missing

You can use the Pandas `isna()`

function to check whether a value in a column is a missing value or not. Let’s apply this function to the “Shirt Size” column in the above dataframe.

# check for missing values in "Shirt Size" column print(df["Shirt Size"].isna())

Output:

0 False 1 True 2 True 3 False 4 True Name: Shirt Size, dtype: bool

You can see that `True`

for all the instances of `NaN`

in the data.

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## Fill missing values in a category column

You can use the Pandas `fillna()`

function to fill missing values in a Pandas category column. Note that the value used for filling the missing values should be one of the possible category values.

For example, let’s fill the missing values in the “Shirt Size” column with the category value “Medium”

# fill missing values with "Medium" print(df["Shirt Size"].fillna("Medium"))

Output:

0 Large 1 Medium 2 Medium 3 Medium 4 Medium Name: Shirt Size, dtype: category Categories (2, object): ['Large', 'Medium']

We get a Pandas series with `NaN`

filled by “Medium”. Note that we haven’t modified the original column values here, just printing out the return value from the `fillna()`

function.

If you try to fill the missing value in a category column with a value other than a possible category value, it will result in an error.

# fill missing values with "Xtra Large" print(df["Shirt Size"].fillna("Xtra Large"))

Output:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------- ValueError Traceback (most recent call last) Input In [7], in <module> 1 # fill missing values with "Xtra Large" ----> 2 print(df["Shirt Size"].fillna("Xtra Large")) ..... ValueError: Cannot setitem on a Categorical with a new category, set the categories first

Here, we try to fill the missing values in the “Shirt Size” column with “Xtra Large”, a value that is not a part of the possible category values and thus, we get an error.

## Drop missing values in a category column

You can use the Pandas `dropna()`

function to drop records with missing values in a Pandas categorical column.

First, let’s print out the dataframe that we’re working with.

# display the dataframe print(df)

Output:

Name Shirt Size 0 Tim Large 1 Sarah NaN 2 Hasan NaN 3 Jyoti Medium 4 Jack NaN

Let’s now drop rows with missing values.

# drop rows with missing values print(df.dropna())

Output:

Name Shirt Size 0 Tim Large 3 Jyoti Medium

You can see that the resulting dataframe doesn’t have any missing values.

You might also be interested in –

- Get List of Categories in Pandas Category Column
- Pandas – Set Category Order of a Categorical Column
- Add New Categories to a Category Column in Pandas

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